推荐2019版高考英语一轮复习 Unit 3 Computers达标巩固练(含解析)新人教版必修2

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Unit 3 Computers

李仕才

***阅读理解。

When it's five o'clock,people leave their office.The length of the workday,for many workers,is defined by time.They leave when the clock tells them they're done.

These days,the time is everywhere:not just on clocks or watches,but on cellphones and computers.That may be a bad thing,particularly at work.New research shows that clock-based work schedules hinder morale(士气)and creativity.

Clock-timers organize their day by blocks of minutes and hours.For example:a meeting from 9 a.m.to 10 a.m.,research from 10 a.m.to noon,etc.On the other hand,task-timers have a list of things they want to accomplish.They work down the list;each task starts when the previous task is completed.It is said that all of us employ a mix of both these types of planning.

What,then,are the effects of thinking about time in these different ways?Does one make us more productive?Better at the tasks at hand?Happier? In experiments conducted by Tamar Avnet and Anne-Laure Sellier,they had participants organize different activities—from project planning,holiday shopping,to yoga—by time or to-do list to measure how they performed under “clock time” vs.“task time”.They found clock-timers to be more efficient but less happy because they felt little control over their lives.Task-timers are happier and more creative,but less productive.They tend to enjoy the moment when something good is happening,and seize opportunities that come up.

The researchers argue that task-based organizing tends to be undervalued and under-supported in business culture.Smart companies,they believe,will try to bake more task-based planning into their strategies.

This might be a small change to the way we view work and the office,but the researchers argue that it challenges a widespread characteristic of the economy:work organized by clock time.While most people will still probably need,and be,to some extent,clock-timers,task-based timing should be used when they are performing a job that requires more creativity.It'll make those tasks easier,and the task-doers will be happier.

1.What is the way people often do their work according to the author?

A.They give priority to the most urgent task on hand.

B.They set a time limit for each specific task.

C.They combine clock-based and task-based planning.

D.They accomplish their tasks one by one.

2.What did the researchers find in their experiments on clock-timers?

A.They tend to be more productive.

B.They seize opportunities as they come up.

C.They always get their work done in time.

D.They have more control over their lives.

3.What is the researchers' opinion about today's business culture?

A.It does not support the strategies adopted by smart companies.

B.It attaches more importance to work efficiency than to workers' lives.

C.It aims to bring employees' potential and creativity into full play.

D.It does not lay enough emphasis on task-based practice.

4.From the passage,we can conclude that ________.

A.it is important to keep a balance between work and life

B.task-based timing is preferred for doing creative work

C.performing creative jobs tends to make workers happier

D.a scientific standard should be adopted in job evaluation

【解题导语】本文是一篇对时钟型和任务型两种工作方式的研究报告。

【难句分析】While most people will still probably need,and be,to some extent,clock-timers,task-based timing should be used when they are performing a job that requires more creativity.

分析:本句中While引导让步状语从句,意思是“虽然”,相当于although;when they are performing a job是when引导的时间状语从句;that requires more creativity是一个定语从句,先行词是a job。

译文:虽然大多数人仍然很可能在某种程度上需要或者成为时钟计时型的人,但是他们在做需要更多创造力的工作时还是应当使用任务型的时间安排。

1.C 考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“It is said that all of us employ a mix of both these types of planning”可知,人们采用了这两种方式的复合型工作方式,因此选项C“他们把时钟型和任务型的计划结合起来”是正确的。选项A、B和D的信息在文中无处可寻,所以都是错误的。give priority to...意为“给……以优先考虑”;on hand意为“在手边”;set a time limit for...意为“给……设定时限”。

2.A 考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“They found clock-timers to be more efficient but less happy because they felt little control over their lives.Task-timers are happier and more creative,but less productive”可知,采用时钟计时型工作方式的人效率更高,采用任务计时型工作方式的人更开心,但是效率较低。所以选A。

3.D 考查推理判断。根据第五段首句“The researchers argue that task-based organizing tends to be undervalued and under-supported in business culture”可知,研究人员认为任务型的工作方式在商业文化中往往被低估并且缺乏支持。故选项D“它(商业文化)没有充分强调任务型的实践”正确。

4.B 考查推理判断。根据末段中的“task-based timing should be used when they are performing a job that requires more creativity”可知,在做需要更多创造力的工作时还是应当使用任务型的工作方式。故选B项。根据第四段中的“Task-timers are happier and more creative, but less productive”和末段的末句“It'll make those tasks easier, and the task-doers will be happier”可知,文中讲述的是采用任务计时型工作方式的人更开心,且更有创造力,但并不意味着做有创造力的工作会让人们更开心,所以选项C是错误的;选项A和D的内容在文中没有提及,是主观臆断,因此也是错误的。

***语法填空。

All of us have read thrilling stories. In many of __1__(they) the hero had only a __2__(limit) and specified time to live. Sometimes it was as long as a year; sometimes as short as twenty-four hours, __3__we were always interested in __4__(discover) just how the dying man chose to spend his last days or his last hours.

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